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Under increasing pressure from the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, in the mid-17th century the Sich declared an independent Cossack Hetmanate, initiated by a rebellion under Bohdan Khmelnytsky.
Afterwards, the Treaty of Pereyaslav (1654) brought most of the Ukrainian Cossack state under Russian rule. Together they began a systematic conquest and colonisation of lands in order to secure the borders on the Volga, the whole of Siberia (see Yermak Timofeyevich), and the Yaik and the Terek Rivers.
The Mongol warlord Dyuden came to Rus and pillaged fourteen towns, including Murom, Moscow, Kolomna, Vladimir, Suzdal, Yuriev-Polsky, Pereslavl-Zalessky, Mozhaysk, Volokolamsk, Dmitrov and Uglitch.